When I was conducting my research that led to the Burnout During Organizational Change Model (B-DOC), I asked my participants to identify what they believed led to their burnout. I didn’t offer any potential choices relating to what I thought caused burnout. So, one particular finding left me, well, flabbergasted:
A disturbing 57.1% of my participants believed that their burnout was either caused or exacerbated by their manager’s requests for them to take ILLEGAL OR UNETHICAL ACTIONS.
This was over half of my participants! An even more disturbing finding was that these requests were more prominent in participants who worked in nonprofit environments (66.7%) compared to those in for-profits (50%).
According to one female non-profit change leader, she felt that she had somehow become involved with “dirty people” because there were multiple requests for her to take illegal or unethical actions.
Another male for-profit change leader was adamant that he would not take the actions requested of him by his manager, stating, “I’m not going to do it. I won’t. It goes against everything I believe in.” His manager’s response was simply, “You have to.”
What do you do when your boss asks – or even demands – that you take actions that you believe are unethical or know are illegal? Sadly, this appears to be a growing challenge for the modern worker.
Some Reasons for Unethical Requests
Organizations are beginning to demand a higher level of ethics in their employees’ conduct. Despite demanding that all employees read and sign the organization’s corporate ethics and compliance policy, the projected moral and legal commitments may not materialize.
The sad reality is that corporate ethics have been under increasing scrutiny as a result of a hypercompetitive marketplace. When the competition is significant (even staggering), company leaders may resort to making business decisions that require employees to take actions that may not necessarily be illegal, but can be perceived as unethical.
While some of these decisions have led to public scandal and disgrace (such as Enron), it appears that far too many companies are “flying under the radar” of conventional ethics, yet still achieving success. For example, companies may use misleading product information or unfair competition practices in order to gain market share. Corporate financial reports may be manipulated to cast a better light on their financials.
Any and all of these unethical decisions are made by employees.
In today’s űber competitive marketplace, some managers believe that a strong commitment to ethical behavior unfairly limits their ability to create desired organizational results. So, they rationalize the underlying ethos of their decisions and demand that their subordinates do the same.
In other words, organizational demands can create a powerful environment in which ethical people behave unethically.
A recent article in the Harvard Business Review noted that, although there has been progress in building more ethical enterprises, 41% of surveyed workers reported seeing ethical misconduct in their workplaces within the previous 12 months.
The ways in which unethical behaviors are displayed in the workplace vary. In my research, participants characterized their managers’ behaviors as unethical when there was constant swearing, inappropriate comments, yelling, screaming, and even harassment. Such poor communication was a precursor to burnout in 64.3% of cases. This lack of values-based, ethical management practices led to treatment of employees that bordered on being inhumane.
Put another way, burned out employees were often the victims of unethical bullying by managers.
Bullying is defined as “any unwanted behaviour that makes someone feel intimidated, degraded, humiliated or offended.” According to ACAS (a nonprofit in the U.K.), bullying and harassment are similar unethical workplace behaviors which may or may not be readily apparent in the workplace.
Even though they are similar, “harassment” under U.S. law has special meaning and protections that are not afforded to bullying. According to research conducted by the Workplace Bullying Institute, most bullying is not accompanied by illegal harassment – meaning that:
80% of bullying provides NO legal recourse for its victims.
Although there are currently no laws against bullying in the U.S., it is gratifying that 30 states and 2 territories have introduced anti-bullying legislation in The Healthy Workplace Bill.
The importance of anti-bullying law is reinforced due to the rise in such behavior across organizational hierarchies. In 2018, Forbes magazine reported that nearly 75% of employees have been affected by workplace bullying. Whether the bullying is initiated by a supervisor or a coworker, it is always considered to be a type of power struggle between the parties.
NOTE: Although the participants in my research did not specifically cite “bullying” as a cause of their burnout, bullies tend to be poor leaders and withhold resources. This combination of poor leadership and a lack of necessary organizational resources to do the job was cited by 92.9% of my participants. Additionally, the lack of organizational caring (which are often displayed in the tactics by used by bullying managers) contributed to burnout in 85.7% overall.
How to Respond to Unethical Requests
Whether these managerial requests are the result of a culture that tolerates such behavior or reflect a management personality that uses power (or bullying) to pressure workers to behave unethically, the individual must still deal with the effects of these requests.
A recent New York Times article gave the benefit of the doubt to the manager: perhaps your boss made the unethical request unwittingly. Similarly, a BusinessInsider.com article warned of the importance in making sure that you fully understand the situation surrounding your boss’s unethical request.
However, once such a request has been made, the quandary for many workers lies in the potential ramifications of complying:
- Will you be held complicit and liable if the unethical request is discovered?
- Will you face retaliation if you report the unethical request to your boss’s boss or HR?
- If you comply, will subsequent requests require even greater ethical challenges?
- Finally, can you continue to work in an environment in which you must act in a way that undermines your ethics and values – even if you are dependent upon your paycheck?
These fears of potential retaliation, demotion, or job loss may be justified. In a National Business Ethics survey conducted by the Ethics and Compliance Initiative in 2016, 53% of U.S. workers who reported misconduct were retaliated against!
So, what can you do when your boss asks you to act in a way that you believe is unethical?
- Ask questions. One of the most simple ways to avoid unethical behaviors is to understand the true nature of the request. Often times an unethical request may simply be an expedient way of solving a problem (in other words, your boss was “too busy” to consider ethical issues). Before reacting strongly and emotionally, ask your manager to repeat the request so that you can clarify what he or she is specifically asking you to do – then paraphrase this understanding back to him or her.
- Trust your gut. If after fully understanding what your manager is requesting and you intuitively know that the act is unethical, explain to your boss why you feel uncomfortable following the directive.
- Focus on creating a more ethical approach to solve the problem. If “cutting corners” to expedite an activity feels unethical to you, mutually brainstorm other ways that your boss can still achieve the desired outcomes and you can feel comfortable with the desired actions. If an initial conversation doesn’t work, then put your ideas into an email – you’ll then have a record as to why you are not complying with a request to do something that you believe is unethical.
- Don’t tolerate being bullied into doing something unethical. If you boss insists that you perform an unethical task, he or she may use pressure, coercion, or intimidation to force you to comply. DON’T! Many requests that start out as unethical may ultimately lead to legal consequences.
Some Reasons for Illegal Requests
Quite frankly, there are none.
Managers who knowingly or unwittingly ask their subordinates to engage in activities that are illegal will still be held liable for the consequences – as you will be, too, since you complied with the illegal request.
The challenge is how to protect yourself in the event of a lawsuit stemming from these illegal actions.
How to Respond to Illegal Requests
The good news is that you may have legal claims against your employer if you suffer retaliation for refusing to take an illegal action at work or if you were a whistleblower who reported the illegal activity. In addition to laws protecting whistleblowers (always check with an attorney!), there may be grounds for wrongful termination pursuant to relevant state laws.
NOTE: Don’t assume your legal standing –
always check with an attorney experienced in employment law!
If you have been asked to take illegal action, this is a time when you MUST take a stand and refuse. As previously mentioned, taking the illegal action even if you disagree with it is NOT an adequate defense in a lawsuit.
To protect yourself, consider the following ideas:
- Escalate your concerns. Talk to your boss’s manager in an effort to resolve the problem. Speak to someone in your company’s HR department – ideally a manager who has the authority to act upon this information. Ask your company’s compliance manager for advice as to how to proceed.
- Be prepared that your boss may retaliate against you. No, it isn’t right. No, it isn’t ethical. And, yes, it may be illegal. But sadly retaliation is all too common.
- Be prepared that your employer may do nothing in response to your questions or complaints. This is a cultural issue – and an organizational culture that supports unethical or illegal behaviors will do little to assist an employee who refuses to comply.
- Be prepared to address coworkers’ comments. Although you should ideally keep the confidentiality of your boss’s request to engage in illegal conduct, the office grapevine can still find out. Once again, this is a cultural issue: you might be viewed as either a hero for refusing to act illegally or you might be viewed as a “snitch” who doesn’t fit with the corporate culture.
- Make sure your resume is ready in case you need to find a new job. As previously mentioned, many employees are retaliated against when they fail to comply with a manager’s request – even if it is unethical or illegal. The question is: do you want to stay in a culture that advocates unethical or illegal behavior AND are you prepared for the legal consequences of being complicit?
An unethical boss is the bane of an ethical employee’s existence plus it can be an environmental factor that leads to the psychological, emotional, and physical űber stress of burnout.
If you’re currently employed at the company, you have some important decisions to make: Is the unethical or illegal request a one-time issue OR is it an indication of the corporate culture? If you stay with your employer, can you handle the emotional strain of staying in an organization whose values do not align with your own? And, finally, is the risk of potential civil or criminal charges against you due to your complicity worth it?
Remember: Unethical or illegal management requests can not only place you into potential legal jeopardy, but can also cause you to burn out!
To thank you for reading my blog and to help you in deciding if you should stay or leave a stressful employment situation, please check out my newly updated eCourse, Job Burnout: When to Stay, When to Go, What to Do. In this on-demand eCourse, you’ll discover three critical questions to help you decide. (NOTE: Although this is an intensive 6 module course, it is available on-demand so that you can work on it at your own pace – plus you have LIFETIME access!)
SPECIAL GIFT: If you use discount code ANW2W15, you can save $15.00 off this course.
Dr. Geri Puleo, SPHR, is the President and CEO of Change Management Solutions, Inc., an eLearning and Coaching company focused on eradicating workplace burnout through the B-DOC Model. An entrepreneur for over 25 years, keynote speaker, author, blogger, business coach, university professor, and researcher, you can see her “in action” by watching her TEDx Talk on YouTube. To contact Dr. Puleo, please go to www.gapuleo.com.